Glossary

A

Accessibility Features
The settings and tools available within the Student Testing Site that provide support for students with disabilities, such as features that allow students to change the color contrast or font size of an online test.
Accommodations (Non-standard)
Any modifications provided for a student's testing experience that affect the construct of the test, which is the general skill that the test is intended to assess. For example, in a test intended to assess writing skills, an accommodation that transcribes a student's speech would change the test construct and be considered a non-standard accommodation.
Accommodations (Standard)
Test modifications that are in use in most online assessment programs and that do not change the construct of the test, which is the general skill that the test is intended to assess. For example, the zoom tools available in the Student Testing Site do not change the construct of a test intended to assess writing skills, so they are considered a standard accommodation.
Aggregation
The compilation of test result data in a report that provides average scores for a group of students, such as the students in a roster or school.
Alignment
The association between an item on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Alternate Response Options
Assistive tools that provide additional support to students who need alternate response options such as adaptive keyboards, switches, or eye gaze systems to respond to test items.
Annual Assessment Window
A designated time period each school year during which schools administer tests to students.
Appeal
A request to resolve a test impropriety (also known as a testing incident), which may interrupt the normal workflow of a test opportunity. Appeals are created and processed in TIDE.
Assessment
An online or paper test consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as a test.
Assessment Reports
Reports available in the Reporting system that provide detailed student performance data for an individual test taken by an individual student or group of students.
Assistive Technology
Any hardware or software that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.

C

Cambium Assessment, Inc. (CAI)
An education company devoted to student assessment. Owned by Cambium Learning Group.
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google.
Chromebook
A laptop that runs Chrome OS.
Cluster
May refer to either of two things:
-A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
-A set of items or interactions within a single item that engages students in activity aligned to a specific standard.
Comma-Separated Values (CSV)
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Complexity
The level of cognitive demand expected for a student to correctly answer a test item.
Condition Code
A code applied in place of a score on an assessment report when a student's response to a test item cannot be scored.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills that a test is intended to measure, such as reading ability or writing ability.
Constructed Response (CR)
An item type that requires student to respond with a written, pictorial, or graphic answer.
Content
Used to refer to the items and stimuli within a test, the reading passage or other media type within a stimulus, and the prompt and response area within an item.
Content Standard
The skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Context Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear inside a menu and are available for individual items and stimuli.
Cover Page (CP)
The first page that appears on some test pamphlets or online assessments, which may include identifying information, such as the test name or student name.
Cut Score
Cut scores specify how much of the content standards students must know and be able to do in order to meet each Achievement Level. The cut scores are derived from the knowledge and skills measured by the test items that students at each Achievement Level are expected to be able to answer correctly. These cut scores determine the percentage of students in each of the state’s four Achievement Levels. A cut score is also a specific point on a test's score scale that distinguishes between two performance levels. Cut scores can determine if a student's test score is Below Standard, Partially Meets Standard, Meets Standard or Exceeds Standard.

D

Data Entry Interface (DEI)
A CAI system that allows educators to enter student performance data, such as a response or score, directly into a test form.
Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and to take tests, including, but not limited to, desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets and assistive technologies for students requiring accommodations.
Dimension
A type of scoring criterion in an item's rubric.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various sub-groups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Administrator (DA)
A CAI system user role representing an administrator for an entire district who has access to reporting information for the district.
District Coordinator (DC)
A CAI system user role representing a coordinator for an entire district.
District Test Coordinator (DTC)
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an entire district.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
Drag-and-Drop Grid Item
Items with a bank of words, phrases, objects, or sentences that may be dragged into a response area.

E

Edit Task (ET)
An item type that requires students to respond by editing words or phrases in a sentence.
Edit Task with Choice (ETC)
An item type that requires students to respond by selecting replacement text for a word or phrase from a drop-down list.
Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in TIDE that determine which tests a student will be able to take in TDS.
ELPA21 Administrator (EA)
A CAI system user role representing an educator who can administer ELPA21 Summative Assessment and Screener
Embedded Support
Built-in tools and settings in the Student Testing Site that provide assistance in using the application to students testing with the appropriate accommodations.
Embedded Text Entry (ETE)
An item type that requires students respond by typing an answer in one or more blank text boxes that appear in a sentence.
End of Life (EOL)
The projected date on which CAI plans to end the Test Delivery System's support for an operating system version.
English Learner (EL)
A student whose native language is not English and who is learning to speak, read, write, and understand the English language.
Equation Response (EQ)
An item type that allows students to respond by clicking mathematical characters that appear in an on-screen keypad.
Errors of Measurement
Typically referred to as standard error of measurement. The amount or difference between a student’s actual score and the theoretical true score. The degree of inherent imprecision in student performance reports based on test content, administration, scoring, or examinee conditions.
Evidence-Based Selected Response (EBSR)
Two-part item in which a student is directed to select the correct answers from Part A and Part B.
Exemplar
An element included in an item's scoring rubric that provides an example of a student response that would earn a certain number of points.
Expiration Rules
The rules that determine how long it takes a test opportunity to expire when a student starts it without completing it. Students cannot make any additional changes to a test opportunity once it expires.
Extended Constructed Response (ECR)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a longer text response, such as an essay.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Family Portal
A CAI system that provides student performance reports for parents and guardians.
Fedora
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Field-Test Item
Items included in an assessment for item development purposes only. Student response data are reviewed to determine whether a field-test item would be a useful operational item. Field-test items do not count toward student scores.
Firewall (FW)
A network security system that monitors traffic and prevents unauthorized access to the network.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Form
A compilation of test items and/or stimuli that make up the segments of an assessment. Also known as a test form.
Frequency-Distribution Report (FDR)
A report that shows the frequency or count of a particular score or outcome by student group or demographic.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment.
Grace Period Extension (GPE)
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to review previously answered questions upon resuming a test after expiration of the pause timer.
Grade Level
The grade in which a student is enrolled.
Grade Range
Two or more consecutive grade levels (for example, grades 3 through 6).
Graph Item
An item type that requires students to respond by adjusting the heights or lengths of bars in a graph.
Grid Item (GI)
A type of item interaction that can offer several different ways for the student to interact with a grid area, such as dragging an object onto the grid canvas or plotting points on a graph.

H

Hand Scoring
The process of manually scoring students' writing responses on the WVGSA Writing.
Hot Spot
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking regions on an image, such as countries on a map.
Hot Text (HT)
An item type that requires students to click words or phrases in a section of text.
Hotline
A CAI system that identifies and alerts administrators about any student responses that may indicate troubled students.

I

Individual Education Plan (IEP)
Describes special education services provided as part of Exceptional Student Education. Also specifies the testing accommodations a student needs for classroom instruction and assessments.
Individual Student Report (ISR)
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on an individual test.
Interaction
A component of a test item that students can interact with, such as a list of options they can select from or a text box in which they type a response. A test item may include one or more individual interactions.
Interim Teacher Item Previewer
A CAI application within the Test Delivery System (TDS) that allows test administrators to administer listening portions of ELA Reading assessments to students with certain accommodations.
Invalidate a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity, which results in the student having no further opportunities for the test.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
Any test question or task for which a separate score is awarded.

J

Job Access with Speech (JAWS)
A screen reader software designed to help vision-impaired people use computer applications.
Julie Demo Definition
This is how to add a definition for a term.

K

Keyboard Command
A key or combination of keys students can press in order to perform an action in the Student Testing Site.

L

Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Longitudinal Report
A type of report available in the Reporting system that shows a comparison of assessment results for a particular student or group of students at two or more points in time.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Machine-Scored Constructed Response (MSCR)
A type of written response item that requires scoring logic or a machine rubric to score.
Mobile Secure Browser (MSB)
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.
Multiple Choice (MC)
An item type that requires students to select a single answer from a list of options.
Multiple Select (MS)
An item type that requires students to select one or more answer options from a list of options.

N

Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics (Nemeth Code)
A Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly.
Non-Eligible Test Discrepancy
A discrepancy occurring when a student submits a test for which they are not eligible. These discrepancies are resolved in TIDE.

O

Operational
In student testing, this term refers to live testing, as distinct from practice testing. An operational assessment is one that is developed and administered at a specified time and whose scoring results are used for the purpose of meeting local, state, and/or federal requirements.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Options
The response choices to an item's stem from which students select an answer.
Out-of-Level Testing
The administration of a test at a level above a student’s present grade level to enable the student to be assessed at the level of instruction rather than the level of enrollment.
Overage
In paper orders managed in TIDE, the percentage of extra test materials to be sent in case they are needed.

P

Paper Order
Also known as a materials order. An order for paper-and-pencil test materials, such as question books and answer sheets. Paper orders can be managed in TIDE.
Participation Rate
In student testing, the percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who could have taken the test.
Participation Report by SSID
A report available in TIDE that details the status for each test opportunity started by a particular student.
Pause Rule
A rule in the Student Testing Site that restricts students from modifying their responses to previous items if they pause their test and return to it after exceeding a certain time limit.
Performance on Tests Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a user's associated students.
Permissive Mode
A Secure Browser setting that allows a student to use pre-approved hardware or software that would otherwise be blocked by the Secure Browser.
Personally Identifying Information (PII)
Information that could identify an individual person, such as a student's name and date of birth.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
Prefetch Item Rule
A setting in TDS that queues up a certain number of test items as students progress through the test to ensure there are no delays in testing.
PreID Label
A preidentification label affixed to a student’s testing materials to associate the test with the student.
PreID Roster
A type of roster that is implicitly created based on the class codes assigned to students in TIDE. When a student's class code is edited, their PreID roster membership is automatically changed as well.
Print Request
A TA Site feature in which students with the appropriate test settings may request printouts of test content, which the test administrator may approve.
PRN File (PRN)
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing Nemeth code or tactile graphics.
Proctor (PR)
A CAI system user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.
Proctor Relationship
In Centralized Reporting, the relationship between a proctor and all their proctored students. It allows the proctor to view test results for any tests students completed in their test sessions, regardless of whether those students belong to the proctor's rosters.
Prompt (P)
The topic a student is given to provide a response to for FSA ELA Writing

R

Re-assign a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reassigns a test from one student to another.
Refreshable Braille Display (RBD)
An assistive technology device for visually-impaired students that translates text to a readable braille format.
Remote Administration (Remote Admin)
A Test Delivery System (TDS) feature that allows test administrators to proctor online tests remotely when students are unable to take a test in the same physical location as the administrator. This feature is only available for Adaptive Progress Monitoring (APM).
Re-open a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test opportunity that was completed, invalidated, or expired.
Re-open Current Test Segment Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test segment that a student already submitted. This is available only if the student has not yet started a new test segment.
Re-open Previous Test Segment Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a previous test segment.
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Reset a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses on the test), or allows the data entry operator to restart the data entry process.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other groups, such as students who have taken honors courses.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

School Coordinator (SC)
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an individual school.
School Year (SY)
The academic year, given as a range (for example, 2020 to 2021).
Scoring Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.
Screen Magnifier Technology
A type of assistive technology that enlarges the content displayed on the computer screen in order to assist students with visual impairments.
Screen Reader
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for vision-impaired users.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Secure Browser (SB)
The CAI browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox (Inbox)
The secure inbox shared across multiple CAI systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Secure Student Identifier (SSID)
A unique number or alphanumeric code assigned to a student for identification purposes.
Simulation (SIM)
An item type that requires students to set the parameters of an interactive animation and extrapolate data in a table.
Single Sign-On (SSO)
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system.
Skill Area
A reporting category or topic by which items are organized in a test based on related standards measured.
Speech-to-Text (STT)
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that transcribes a student's speech and enters it into a text box.
Standard
The specific skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
State Administrator (SA)
A CAI system user role that may have access to any special administrative features available in a system.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.
Student Not Found Discrepancy
A type of test discrepancy resolved in TIDE that occurs when the identifying information on a paper answer document is not found in TIDE.
Student Portfolio Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a particular student.
Student Testing Site
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests. Both practice and operational Student Testing Sites are available. The operational site is also known as the Secure Browser.

T

Table Input (TI)
An item type that requires students to respond by entering information in a table.
Table Match
This item type presents options in columns and rows. Options may include numerical values, words, phrases, sentences, quotations, line/paragraph/passage numbers, or images.
Take a Test (TAT)
A Microsoft application that allows students to take a test securely in Windows. The Take a Test app may be used as an alternative to the CAI Secure Browser.
Teacher (TE)
A CAI system user role, typically one that is associated with one or more rosters.
Test
An online or paper form consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as an assessment.
Test Administration Certification Course (TA Certification Course)
A certification course offered to potential test administrators in order to prepare them for use of CAI's Test Delivery System.
Test Administration Site (TA Site)
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions. Both practice and operational TA Sites exist. Also known as the TA Interface.
Test Administrator (TA)
A CAI system user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System (TDS)
All computer-based FSA and NGSSS assessments are administered via TDS, which includes the TA Interface and the secure browser.
Test Form
A unique set of items consisting of core operational items and a smaller number of either field-test or anchor items. Students with different test forms encounter the same operational items, but different field-test or anchor items.
Test Information and Distribution Engine (TIDE)
TIDE is the enrollment and user management system for FSA and NGSSS assessments. Student enrollment and test eligibility information is managed in TIDE. All school and district personnel involved in the administration of FSA and NGSSS assessments must have TIDE user accounts.
Test Label
The name of an assessment as displayed in CAI systems.
Test Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Test Reason
A category assigned to a test opportunity, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes. Test reasons can be assigned to test opportunities in TDS or the Reporting system. Only for APM assessments.
Test Reason Manager
A feature in the Reporting system that allows users to set and modify the test reasons assigned to test opportunities.
Test Segment
A section of a test. Tests may be divided into multiple segments based on the skills measured, types of tasks, and/or tools available in that section.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the TA Site in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Student Testing Site.
Test Window (TW)
The date range in which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Text-to-Speech (TTS)
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that reads aloud text content within a test.
Tiger Viewer/Designer
Accessibility software used to emboss PRN test items in a Braille test.
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Site that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Ubuntu
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Uncontracted Braille
A version of Braille that uses cells of dots to represent individual letters, numbers, and symbols.
User
An educator who is able to access and use a CAI system. Accounts for users can be created in TIDE.
User Role
In CAI systems, a role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.

V

Voice Pack (VP)
A software tool for emulating speech. Voice packs must be present in testing devices for any students who will use text-to-speech (TTS).